ansible 基本概念,ad-hoc操作

系统运维 waitig 410℃ 百度已收录 0评论

ansible 是一个自动化的工具,主要用来管理配置文件,应用部署等作用。

非常高效

通过ssh协议,不需要mq,数据库,agentless的不需要在client上面安装agent,比较轻量级,兼容性比较好。

ansible一般参数

并发10个

$ ansible atlanta -a "/sbin/reboot" -f 10
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指定user

$ ansible atlanta -a "/usr/bin/foo" -u username
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ad-hoc任务

一般用来做一些一次性的工作,ansible还支持所谓的playbook,一段剧本,可以保持下来复用。

比如说安装一个软件啊,开一个服务啊,执行一条命令什么的。

我们先从最简单的ping开始。

1. ping模块

[root@monitor ]# ansible test -m ping
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
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很简单加个-m 参数代表用ping这个模块。他返回两个,changed ,和ping ,

2. shell模块

很简单,就是执行一个shell命令。 
比如说echo hello

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test  -m shell -a 'echo hello'
120.25.145.42 | success | rc=0 >>
hello
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-a 代表shell模块的参数

3. copy,file文件传输模块

copy可以把本机的文件远程传输到目标机器上 
例如

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m copy -a "src=/etc/hosts dest=/tmp/hosts"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "checksum": "9d85f37d33366a82f2486c304c4c420a214f2aba",
    "dest": "/tmp/hosts",
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0644",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/tmp/hosts",
    "size": 353,
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 0
}
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file模块可以修改文件的所有人,所属组,mode。

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m file -a " dest=/tmp/hosts owner=nobody"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0644",
    "owner": "nobody",
    "path": "/tmp/hosts",
    "size": 353,
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 99
}
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这些参数同样可以传到copy 模块里面。copy模块的实现好像用的scp。

4. yum,apt模块,软件管理的模块。

ansible-doc yum 看下参数说明 
主要是state这个参数,代表安装,卸载等。

state
        Whether to install (`present', `latest'), or remove (`absent')
        a package. (Choices: present, latest, absent) [Default:
        present]

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就三个状态,present,latest,absent,前两个代表安装,后面一个是卸载。很好理解。

用起来就是:

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m yum -a "name=ntp state=present"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "msg": "",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "ntp-4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos.x86_64 providing ntp is already installed"
    ]
}

卸载:

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m yum -a "name=ntp state=absent"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "msg": "",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit, security\nSetting up Remove Process\nResolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package ntp.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos will be erased\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package     Arch           Version                      Repository        Size\n================================================================================\nRemoving:\n ntp         x86_64         4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos         @updates         1.6 M\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nRemove        1 Package(s)\n\nInstalled size: 1.6 M\nDownloading Packages:\nRunning rpm_check_debug\nRunning Transaction Test\nTransaction Test Succeeded\nRunning Transaction\n\r  Erasing    : ntp-4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos.x86_64                              1/1 \nwarning: /etc/ntp.conf saved as /etc/ntp.conf.rpmsave\nUnable to connect to dbus\n\r  Verifying  : ntp-4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos.x86_64                              1/1 \n\nRemoved:\n  ntp.x86_64 0:4.2.6p5-3.el6.centos                                             \n\nComplete!\n"
    ]
}
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5. User 用户管理模块

包括用户和用户组都可以进行管理。

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m user -a "name=ss password='$6$SZpOojUl/UdHCgBZ$cr17itDcLSvLSQnkCrofKUW9k/.TDmJ6rFJZ3pSxKuJ8DquwRpk0OfEuzSIPsRC0xK7RsBM5K/fHEMwyPtX8s/'"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "append": false,
    "changed": true,
    "comment": "",
    "group": 504,
    "home": "/home/ss",
    "move_home": false,
    "name": "ss",
    "password": "NOT_LOGGING_PASSWORD",
    "shell": "/bin/bash",
    "state": "present",
    "uid": 503
}
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password的参数是sha512加密的, 
可以用grub-crypt生成,或者是用python的模块生成

python -c "from passlib.hash import sha512_crypt; import getpass; print sha512_crypt.encrypt(getpass.getpass())"
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详细可以看http://docs.ansible.com/faq.html#how-do-i-generate-crypted-passwords-for-the-user-module

[root@monitor install-zabbix-playbook]# ansible test -m user -a 'name=fuck password="$6$rounds=40000$M.jOLGeGue3hPdYb$FTaslz1igc8IKi7TolGxkDrr9XSRLPT0QXtgwRCqac9XsTEqmWagxLY.1s8oQMjuQUI6hlK/DyFb3Kxye5nar0"'
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "append": false,
    "changed": true,
    "comment": "",
    "group": 506,
    "home": "/home/fuck",
    "move_home": false,
    "name": "fuck",
    "password": "NOT_LOGGING_PASSWORD",
    "shell": "/bin/bash",
    "state": "present",
    "uid": 505
}
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查看是否修改成功

[root@iZ94wi1x5hoZ ~]# cat /etc/shadow|grep -E 'fuck|root'
root:$6$AXHXCLyd$vXQw0C/WuHqEM0htW/c9lGAW03Gm8NXnUD9MSHvz9kjBoqqL/AvhxWBX2/NhAXemFtgJPGUYsP0A8hXDMUgns0:16579:0:99999:7:::
fuck:$6$rounds=40000$M.jOLGeGue3hPdYb$FTaslz1igc8IKi7TolGxkDrr9XSRLPT0QXtgwRCqac9XsTEqmWagxLY.1s8oQMjuQUI6hlK/DyFb3Kxye5nar0:16583:0:99999:7:::
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6. Git模块

部署项目用 
设置一个repo 就好了,当然你设置git:的repo必须ssh认证。这边是基于https认证的例子。

[root@monitor install-zabbix-playbook]# ansible test -m git -a "repo=https://code.csdn.net/aca_jingru/tomcat.git dest=/data"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "after": "b11ee2f3471fe647a70a514acb22ecf8b1146628",
    "before": null,
    "changed": true
}
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7. Service服务模块

启动,停止,重启,reload,对应4个state如下:

  • started
  • stopped
  • restarted
  • reloaded
[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m service -a "name=httpd state=restarted"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "name": "httpd",
    "state": "started"
}
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8. facts侦测模块

把主机上面的基本信息全部侦测一般,这个模块一般不单独用,一般都是配合playbook使用, 
单独的用的话一般加个filter过滤参数,比如我要获取网卡信息:

[root@monitor ~]# ansible test -m setup -a  "filter=ansible_eth[0-2]"
120.25.145.42 | success >> {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_eth0": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "eth0",
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "10.116.133.68",
                "netmask": "255.255.248.0",
                "network": "10.116.128.0"
            },
            "macaddress": "00:16:3e:00:00:ab",
            "module": "xen_netfront",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "promisc": false,
            "type": "ether"
        },
        "ansible_eth1": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "eth1",
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "120.25.145.42",
                "netmask": "255.255.252.0",
                "network": "120.25.144.0"
            },
            "macaddress": "00:16:3e:00:18:9b",
            "module": "xen_netfront",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "promisc": false,
            "type": "ether"
        }
    },
    "changed": false
}

本文由【waitig】发表在等英博客
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