ubuntu 14.04 下FTP服务器的搭建–锁定用户目录,解决vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot()

系统运维 waitig 487℃ 百度已收录 0评论

FTP服务器的搭建,我要实现的需求是:

  不允许匿名访问,因为我的机器不想让谁都能登录上来,随便获取文件,

  需要锁定一个目录,因为在家里,我需要给媳妇下载一些电影 韩剧之类的东西,媳妇会来我机器下载,但是我不想让他随意操作我的东西。

  万一删除我的配置文件,我就惨了(吐槽一下韩剧:媳妇问我,你都没看过韩剧怎么知道它不好看呢,我说:我没吃过屎 但是知道它一定不好吃!)

  另外,需要本机也能访问,因为我要做一些关于FTP的测试。

   不单独建立FTP用户,FTP也使用ubuntu桌面的用户进行登录和操作,

  我还不希望FTP开始启动。

 

好了 我们开始安装,很简单。

  

sudo apt-get install vsftpd 

30秒内估计就能安装完。

下面开始配置:

首先备份配置文件。

duoduo@ubuntu:/etc/init$ cd /etc/
duoduo@ubuntu:/etc$ sudo cp vsftpd.conf vsftpd.conf.old

接下来就是开始配置了,

 

咱们就针对需求来:

     1. 不允许匿名访问,因为我的机器不想让谁都能登录上来,随便获取文件,

  配置如下:

   23 anonymous_enable=NO

  2.需要锁定一个目录,因为在家里,我需要给媳妇下载一些电影 韩剧之类的东西,

   媳妇会来我机器下载,但是我不想让他随意操作我的东西。

   万一删除我的配置文件,我就惨了

  配置如下:

  152 local_root=/home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件
  
   备注:[FTP共享文件] 这个文件夹是我新建出来的

  另外,需要本机也能访问,因为我要做一些关于FTP的测试。 

  配置如下:

  26 local_enable=YES

   不单独建立FTP用户,FTP也使用ubuntu桌面的用户进行登录和操作,

  配置如下:

  120 #chroot_local_user=YES
  121 chroot_list_enable=YES
  122 # (default follows)
  123 chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

  这里需要/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list 这个文件,如果没有请新建:
  sudo gedit /etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
  内容如下(例如我桌面的用户名为duoduo):
  
duoduo

 

  其实就是把你的用户名写进去

  我还不希望FTP开始启动。 一会单独说!

 

贴出我的配置文件。

 

复制代码

  1 # Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
  2 #
  3 # The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
  4 # loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
  5 # Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
  6 #
  7 # READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
  8 # Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's
  9 # capabilities.
 10 #
 11 #
 12 # Run standalone?  vsftpd can run either from an inetd or as a standalone
 13 # daemon started from an initscript.
 14 listen=YES
 15 #
 16 # Run standalone with IPv6?
 17 # Like the listen parameter, except vsftpd will listen on an IPv6 socket
 18 # instead of an IPv4 one. This parameter and the listen parameter are mutually
 19 # exclusive.
 20 #listen_ipv6=YES
 21 #
 22 # Allow anonymous FTP? (Disabled by default)
 23 anonymous_enable=NO
 24 #
 25 # Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
 26 local_enable=YES
 27 #
 28 # Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
 29 write_enable=YES
 30 #
 31 # Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
 32 # if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)
 33 #local_umask=022
 34 #
 35 # Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
 36 # has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
 37 # obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
 38 #anon_upload_enable=YES
 39 #
 40 # Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
 41 # new directories.
 42 #anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
 43 #
 44 # Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they
 45 # go into a certain directory.
 46 dirmessage_enable=YES
 47 #
 48 # If enabled, vsftpd will display directory listings with the time
 49 # in  your  local  time  zone.  The default is to display GMT. The
 50 # times returned by the MDTM FTP command are also affected by this
 51 # option.
 52 use_localtime=YES
 53 #
 54 # Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
 55 xferlog_enable=YES
 56 #
 57 # Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
 58 connect_from_port_20=YES
 59 #
 60 # If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
 61 # a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not
 62 # recommended!
 63 #chown_uploads=YES
 64 #chown_username=whoever
 65 #
 66 # You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
 67 # below.
 68 #xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
 69 #
 70 # If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.
 71 # Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.
 72 #xferlog_std_format=YES
 73 #
 74 # You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
 75 #idle_session_timeout=600
 76 #
 77 # You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
 78 #data_connection_timeout=120
 79 #
 80 # It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
 81 # ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
 82 #nopriv_user=ftpsecure
 83 #
 84 # Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
 85 # recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
 86 # however, may confuse older FTP clients.
 87 #async_abor_enable=YES
 88 #
 89 # By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
 90 # the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
 91 # mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
 92 # Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
 93 # attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd
 94 # predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
 95 # raw file.
 96 # ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
 97 #ascii_upload_enable=YES
 98 #ascii_download_enable=YES
 99 #
100 # You may fully customise the login banner string:
101 ftpd_banner=Welcome to duoduo's FTP service.
102 #
103 # You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
104 # useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
105 #deny_email_enable=YES
106 # (default follows)
107 #banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails
108 #
109 # You may restrict local users to their home directories.  See the FAQ for
110 # the possible risks in this before using chroot_local_user or
111 # chroot_list_enable below.
112 #chroot_local_user=YES
113 #
114 # You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
115 # directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
116 # users to NOT chroot().
117 # (Warning! chroot'ing can be very dangerous. If using chroot, make sure that
118 # the user does not have write access to the top level directory within the
119 # chroot)
120 #chroot_local_user=YES
121 chroot_list_enable=YES
122 # (default follows)
123 chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
124 #
125 # You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
126 # default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
127 # sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume
128 # the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
129 #ls_recurse_enable=YES
130 #
131 # Customization
132 #
133 # Some of vsftpd's settings don't fit the filesystem layout by
134 # default.
135 #
136 # This option should be the name of a directory which is empty.  Also, the
137 # directory should not be writable by the ftp user. This directory is used
138 # as a secure chroot() jail at times vsftpd does not require filesystem
139 # access.
140 secure_chroot_dir=/var/run/vsftpd/empty
141 #
142 # This string is the name of the PAM service vsftpd will use.
143 pam_service_name=vsftpd
144 #
145 # This option specifies the location of the RSA certificate to use for SSL
146 # encrypted connections.
147 rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
148 # This option specifies the location of the RSA key to use for SSL
149 # encrypted connections.
150 rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
151 #
152 local_root=/home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件

复制代码

现在可以重启FTP了。

duoduo@ubuntu:/etc$ sudo service vsftpd restart
vsftpd stop/waiting
vsftpd start/running, process 303

OK 看到这些 证明配置文件没有问题,FTP启动了

下面直接访问FTP 看看:

复制代码

duoduo@ubuntu:/etc$ ftp 127.0.0.1
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
220 Welcome to Duoduo's FTP service.
Name (127.0.0.1:duoduo): duoduo
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
500 OOPS: vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot()
Login failed.
421 Service not available, remote server has closed connection
ftp> 

复制代码

居然报了一个500的错误

vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot()

。其实这里是需要特殊说明的,原因出在这里

120 #chroot_local_user=YES

121 chroot_list_enable=YES

122 # (default follows)

123 chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

我们用

chroot_list_enable=YES 和 chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list配合使用,使得只有在vsftpd.chroot_list中配置的用户才能登录FTP。

对于这要的配置有一个特殊的要求,就是vsftpd.chroot_list里面配置的用户,对于前面local_root配置的目录不能有写的权限!

也就是/home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件 这个文件夹 对于duoduo这个用户不能有写的权限,

我们为了额操作方便可以这么做:

 sudo chown -R root:root /home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件/

这样,duoduo这个用户对于/home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件没有写权限了,

现在重启FTP 重新登录看看:

复制代码

duoduo@ubuntu:/etc$ ftp 127.0.0.1
Connected to 127.0.0.1.
220 Welcome to duoduo's FTP service.
Name (127.0.0.1:duoduo): duoduo
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp>

复制代码

OK  FTP 好了 可以登录了

但是我刚才 sudo chown -R root:root /home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件/ 这个操作 还带来了一个麻烦。就是FTP共享文件在我桌面登录时,不能任意复制粘贴操作文件了,但是我还要必须保持duoduo用户对[FTP共享文件] 这个文件夹不可写。这该怎么办呢?

 

其实很简单,

cd /home/duoduo/公共的/FTP共享文件
sudo mkdir FTPFILES
sudo chown -R duoduo:duoduo FTPFILES

这样 就保持了 FTP共享文件 文件夹duoduo用户不可写,但duoduo用户用可以在桌面登录时任意操作文件了,只不过此时的随意范围在FTPFILES文件夹范围呢了。

这样基本FTP服务基本搭建完成了。

 

对了 忘记了一点。就是不让FTP服务开机启动。操作如下:

duoduo@ubuntu:/etc/init$ cd /etc/init/
duoduo@ubuntu:/etc/init$ sudo cp vsftpd.conf vsftpd.conf.old 

 

编辑配置文件

sudo gedit /etc/init/vsftpd.conf

将#start on runlevel [2345] or net-device-up IFACE!=lo 修改为start on runlevel [345] 如下:

#start on runlevel [2345] or net-device-up IFACE!=lo
start on runlevel [345]
stop on runlevel [!2345]

 

这次重启FTP 重启系统 彻底完成。

 

这里建议大家查一下:chroot_local_user  chroot_list_enable=YES chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list 相关的资料,这里面灵活性配置很高的。


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